We describe a method based on the differential algebraic (DA) approach to obtain the resulting out-of-plane expansions to any order in an order-independent, straightforward fashion. In particular, the resulting fields satisfy Maxwell's equations to the order of the expansion up to machine precision errors, and without any inaccuracies that can arise from conventional divided difference or finite element schemes for the computation of out-of-plane fields.
The method relies on re-writing the underlying PDE as a fixed point problem involving DA operations, and in particular the differential algebraic integration operator. We illustrate the performance of the method for a variety of practical examples, and obtain estimates for the orders necessary to describe the fields to a prescribed accuracy.
K. Makino, M. Berz, C. Johnstone, Int. Journal of Modern Physics A 26 (2011) 1807-1821
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